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Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in Ruby

Object Oriented Programming, often abbreviated as OOP, is a type of computer programming language approach that focuses on objects instead of ‘actions’.

The primary elements of OOP are objects and classes. A class serves as a blueprint for creating individual objects, encapsulating behaviors and states within a single entity. It encapsulates behaviors and states in a single entity. In contrast, an object is an instance of a class, and it has its unique values for the properties and methods defined in the class.

Classes and Instances in Ruby

In the realm of Ruby object-oriented programming, a class serves as a blueprint for creating objects, combining methods (actions an object can perform) and attributes (the object’s data) into one neat package.

Ruby enables the creation of instances from a class. These instances represent objects that carry their unique data, distinct from other objects. Consequently, each object can operate independently of others.

For instance, consider the class as a cookie cutter and the cookies as the objects. Even if cookies are made from the same cutter (class), each can have its unique decorations (data).

Private and Public Methods

In Ruby, methods can be classified as public, private, or protected. Public methods act as interfaces for interacting with an instance of a class. On the other hand, private methods are for implementation details that don’t need to be accessed outside of the class.

Encapsulation and Polymorphism in Ruby

Encapsulation and polymorphism, fundamental principles of Ruby object-oriented programming, ensure robust and flexible code. Safeguarding data within objects from inadvertent alteration, encapsulation establishes a protective boundary.

In contrast, polymorphism enables the utilization of a single interface to execute diverse functionality, contingent on the invoking context. This facilitates the reuse of methods with the same name across different classes.

Take the analogy of a universal remote control. With the same set of buttons (interface), it can control different electronic devices like a TV, radio, or DVD player (functionality), depending on which one you ‘invoke’ or choose to control. This is a simple demonstration of polymorphism.

Concluding Thoughts

Understanding object-oriented programming concepts is key when it comes to working with Ruby. Mastering classes, instances, public and private methods, encapsulation, and polymorphism will give you a solid foundation for building efficient and effective programs in Ruby.

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